J.D.R. Hawkins

One bullet can make a man a hero… or a casualty.

Archive for the tag “Charleston Harbor”

Mary Boykin Chesnut

Of all the written works created during the Civil War, Mary Chesnut’s diary is one of the most well known. Because of her ability to frankly describe the events that transpired,her diary is considered by historians to be the most important work by a Confederate author, and a true work of art.

Born to Congressman Stephen Decatur Miller and May Boykin on March 31, 1823 at Mount Pleasant plantation near Stateburg, South Carolina, Mary Miller was the eldest of four children. In 1829, her father became governor of South Carolina, and in 1831, he served as a U.S.senator. Mary was educated at home and in Camden schools before she was sent to a French boarding school in Charleston at age 12. She spent her school break at her father’s cotton plantations in Mississippi,but when he died in 1838, she returned to Camden.She met James Chesnut Jr., eight years her senior, in 1836, when he was at the boarding school visiting his niece, and although he began to court her, Mary’s parents opposed it. However, on April 23, 1840, when Mary was 17, the two were married.

For the next twenty years,Mary spent her time between Camden and Mulberry, her husband’s family plantation. James was elected to the U.S.Senate in 1858, so Mary accompanied him to Washington, where she nurtured friendships with many upper-class citizens, including Jefferson and Varina Howell Davis,John Bell Hood, and Wade Hampton III. When talk of war escalated in 1860, James was the first to resign his senate seat on November 10, The Chesnuts returned to South Carolina, where he participated in drafting an ordinance of secession, and served on the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States of America.From February 1861 through July 1865, Mary recorded her experiences. She was in Charleston when Ft. Sumter was fired upon on Friday, April 12, 1861, and watched the skirmish from a rooftop. In her diary, she described the city’s residents, along with what is now known as The Battery, sitting on balconies and drinking salutes to the advent of hostilities.

James subsequently served as an aide to General P.G.T. Beauregard and Jefferson Davis. He was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. During the war, Mary accompanied him to Montgomery, Columbia, and Richmond, where she entertained the Confederate elite.

After the war, the Chesnut’s returned to Camden,struggling unsuccessfully to get out of debt. James had inherited two plantations when his father died in 1866: Mulberry and Sandy Field. They were heavily damaged by Federal troops, and slaves who had become freedmen still depended on him. James and Mary’s mother died within a week of each other in January 1885. According to his father’s will, the land was to be passed down to a male heir, and because he and Mary never had children, she lost her claim.

Mary’s writing revealed her strong opinions concerning slavery and women’s rights, as well as criticism for conservative decisions made by Southern leaders, her husband included. She expressed her repulsion for lapses in morality caused by the male-dominated society of the South, using her father-in-law’s liaison with a slave as an example.

In the 1870’s, she edited her diaries in an attempt to publish them, but failed. She tried her hand at fiction, writing three novels, but was also unsuccessful at having them published, so in the 1880’s, she revised her diaries into a book entitled Mary Chesnut’s Civil War. Only a small excerpt was published in the Charleston Weekly News and Courier as “The Arrest of a Spy.” Her final years were spent supplementing her $100-a-year income by selling eggs and butter. She died of a heart attack on November 22, 1886. Historians believe she wasn’t finished with her work. In 1905, and again in 1949, her diaries were published in truncated and heavily edited versions as A Diary from Dixie. In 1981, C. Vann Woodward published a version that included her complete work, and won the Pulitzer Prize for history in 1982.

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The Hunley Project

Eleven years ago, the Confederate submarine H. L. Hunley was raised from the depths just off South Carolina’s Charleston Harbor, and the mystery still remains as to why it sank. There has been much speculation, including the idea that the sub lost oxygen inside, thus causing the demise of the crewmen within her thick iron walls. (Their remains were put to rest during a Confederate funeral in 2004.) Another thought is that an explosion occurred after the Hunley rammed a spar with a power charge into a Union blockade ship, the Housatonic, in February 1864. The Hunley was the first submarine to sink an enemy warship. It was a Confederate “secret weapon,” constructed in Mobile, Alabama.

In 1995, author Clive Cussler led a team of archeologists to the discovery of the Hunley. The submarine was found to be remarkably intact and well preserved, due to its being buried in sand and silt. The vessel was raised and delivered to Clemson University’s Warren Lasch Conservation Center, where it remains today.

Recently, the hull of the sub was turned upright to reveal a side that hasn’t seen the light of day in 147 years, when the crew first entered the vessel. It took three days to turn the submarine. Approximately $22 million has been spent in the past fifteen years to preserve the Hunley. However, the investment has made its return, as several million people have visited the conservatory, where the Hunley rests in a tank-full of water. The next step will be to remove the overhead truss and straps that have been holding the vessel in place. The Hunley could be displayed in a museum as early as 2015.

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